Cleaning up Toxic Soils in China: A trillion-dollar question

scroll for the Story

~ MORE ~

White House economist Joe Lavorgna on why he expects a 'V-shaped' recovery White House economist Joe Lavorgna has been predicting
রেড জোন আর লকডাউন, যেন ধোঁয়াশা আর বিভ্রান্তির প্রতিশব্দ। #Dhaka রেড জোন ও লকডাউন নিয়ে ধোঁয়াশা কাটছে না রাজধানীবাসীর। উত্তর-দক্ষিণ
【小穎美食】土豆這樣做太好吃了,去飯店都吃不到,鮮香滑嫩,比紅燒肉還香! #小穎美食#Xiaoying Cuisine 今天給大家分享的是土豆丸子的做法,需要準備:土豆、食鹽、豬肉、洋蔥、生薑、生抽、黃豆醬、花椒粉、澱粉、豆腐、食用油、紅椒、香蔥、蠔油、香菜。土豆丸子這樣做,口感非常的鮮嫩,還裹著香氣濃郁的湯汁,也是一種非常少油又健康的做法,營養又美味,家里人都適合食用。 喜歡小穎的可以點擊: 大家好,歡迎大家來到小穎美食,我平常特別喜歡做菜,熱愛美食。我會在這裡每天分享一道菜,大家可以學習試著去做下,希望大家的生活可以越來越美好。喜歡美食的朋友們可以訂閱下噢。 Full/More Story at Source 【小穎美食】土豆這樣做太好吃了,去飯店都吃不到,鮮香滑嫩,比紅燒肉還香!小穎美食
Divided government is good for markets, says Barclays' Mike Lewis Mike Lewis, head of Americas cash equities trading at Barclays,
Workhorse CEO Duane Hughes on Lordstown Motors public debut Duane Hughes, Workhorse CEO, on Lordstown Motors going public and the
WHO on Oxford-AstraZeneca coronavirus vaccine data: 'It is good news' The World Health Organization on Monday applauded newly published data
It's great to be back in #Ohio to celebrate the return of Big 10 football! President Trump: It's great to
France terror attacks: Macron calls for EU free movement reform President Macron also beefs up border security, as France remains
Special Episode: The Song That Found Me In a time of need, a Times critic is moored by Patti LaBelle
【小穎美食】五花肉不要紅燒了,加2個鹹蛋,比紅燒肉還香,一次幾斤不夠吃! #小穎美食#Xiaoying Cuisine 今天給大家分享的是五花肉的新做法,需要準備:五花肉、豆腐、小蔥、生薑、冰糖、香葉、八角、桂皮、鹹鴨蛋、生抽、老抽、蠔油、料酒、食鹽、食用油、香菜。這道鹹蛋燜五花肉,做法簡單,並且這樣做出的五花肉肥而不膩,瘦而不柴,還有淡淡的鹹鴨蛋香味,入口即化,鮮香美味,開胃又下飯。 喜歡小穎的可以點擊: 大家好,歡迎大家來到小穎美食,我平常特別喜歡做菜,熱愛美食。我會在這裡每天分享一道菜,大家可以學習試著去做下,希望大家的生活可以越來越美好。喜歡美食的朋友們可以訂閱下噢。 Full/More Story at Source 【小穎美食】五花肉不要紅燒了,加2個鹹蛋,比紅燒肉還香,一次幾斤不夠吃!小穎美食

explore a.

all Story at a.

✐ Publish
👁️‍🗨️ Perceive
🙂 Play

Your concerned Story here:

Cleaning up Toxic Soils in China: A trillion-dollar question

Soil contamination is an urgent problem around the world, but the situation is much worse in developing countries undergoing rapid industrialization and urbanization.

China, which underwent its own rapid industrialization in the 20th century, recently estimated nearly 20 per cent of its total farmland had been contaminated by heavy metals.

This dire environmental reality poses serious societal challenges, such as food insecurity and public health threats. Governments around the world have been taking measures and enacting legislation to address the adverse effects of soil contamination. One of the most recent examples is the Soil Pollution Prevention and Control Law (土壤污染防治法) adopted by the top Chinese legislatures on August 31, 2018.

This is the first time China has enacted a law targeting soil pollution. Along with revisions to the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Law (大气污染防治法) in 2015 and to the Water Pollution Prevention and Control Law (水污染防治法) in 2017, this move further demonstrates China’s shift in putting the environment above GDP growth.

Like previous laws addressing pollution, the soil pollution law takes the “putting prevention first” approach (art. 3) and includes an entire chapter (Chapter 3) on preventative measures government authorities and land users should take to protect soil from future pollution. For existing soil pollution, the law holds polluters and users (as it is rare in China for individuals to own land) accountable for a series of risk management and remediation obligations (Chapter 4), with the polluters being primarily responsible.

However, the practicality and effectiveness of these provisions largely depend on whether enough financing is available for cleanup. Unlike air or water pollution, soil pollution may take a long time to surface, which makes identifying polluters difficult. What’s more, toxins remain in soil for centuries and are significantly more expensive—if not impossible—to eradicate.

Some estimates put the cost for remediation efforts between 2016 and 2020 at up to CNY 9 trillion, or approximately USD 1.3 trillion. The government itself estimates it might be able to cover only a small fraction of the overall cost. During the 12th Five-year Plan (2011–2015), only CNY 30 billion (USD 4.546 billion) was allocated to soil remediation, mainly for urban areas.

Combine polluter payments with government support and a prohibitive capital gap still exists in China’s efforts to restore land and protect public health. This gap will have to be filled by private sources.

There are two challenges in attracting this private capital. First, how do we make soil remediation a worthwhile investment for private capital holders? Second, how do we ensure the limited investments from the public purse are used optimally—namely, they are deployed in such a manner as to leverage the maximum private investment?

As an attempt to address these challenges, the new law proposes the establishment of special funds at the provincial level to prevent and control soil pollution in situations where polluters are difficult or impossible to identify (art. 71). However, the law remains silent on the composition or sources of the funds, nor does it contain any provisions on the monitoring of the funds.

In addition to the special funds, the law also encourages donations (art. 74) and establishes a legal basis for issuing tax credits (art. 73) and developing innovative credit enhancement tools (art. 72) to encourage private investments into soil remediation projects.

The law remains unclear on the type of financing instruments that can be used for soil remediation projects and fails to provide detailed procedures to claim these benefits.

The establishment of remediation funds is common practice in many countries. One of the best known is the Superfund established in the United States in 1980. This federal program established a fund with mixed sources to finance cleanup where responsible parties are unknown or have failed to clean sites. (IISD’s detailed analysis of the Superfund and other similar funds and lessons learned from them is online here.)

Such a fund does not yet exist in China, at least not until the new soil pollution law comes into effect on January 1, 2019. The law announces a new era for Chinese production, with more responsibility and less pollution. But the pollution inherited from past practices will require massive amounts of non-public investments into remediation projects. Innovative solutions will be needed.

To address the specific difficulties and risks associated with financing soil remediation projects, IISD has been working with partners to identify and assess innovative financing vehicles and “new finance” approaches that could be explored to complement public sources. Financing Models for Soil Remediation, a series of reports prepared by IISD and partners, analyzes the state of play on financing soil remediation in China. The reports explore international practice on soil remediation financing, as well as real world examples of innovative blended financing that could be adapted to this urgent issue.

On September 12, 2018, join experts from around the world during a free webinar on soil remediation financing.


as per our monitoring this Story originally appeared

* : ) here → *

Cleaning up Toxic Soils in China: A trillion-dollar question

Have A Say ?

Pay A Visit :

all Think Trillion Story


We've thought not to show typical, irritating Google adsense to give you an ad-free, calm internet experience always. But it depends on your continuous support for our this distinguished initiative, whenever we see our Donation Model reaches equivalent to Google Adsense earnings, we'll stop showing google ads. Make a donation of just $1 (we wont want more indeed).

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published.